Web – The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is commonly called ‘the Net’.
This is also called ‘the Web’ It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. It is one of the largest networks that link billions of computers all over the world. The Internet has continued to grow and evolve over the years of its existence
The Internet was started back then in the 1960’s. In the Pentagon, the US Department of Defense, a networking project – Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was launched. So it was launched to work as a network that would allow scientists and military personnel to exchange information in a war scenario without disruption in communications. Researchers and academics in other fields began to make use of the network. In 1986 National Science Foundation (NSF) connected to its huge network of five supercomputer centers, called NSFnet, to ARPANET. This configuration of complex networks became known as the internet. Till 1995, NSFnet handled the communication activities or traffic on the Internet. In 1995, NSFnet terminated its network on the Internet and returned to its status of that of a research network.
It is difficult to say the number of computers that are connected to the Internet as they are in billions and are increasing at a rapid rate. The Internet offers facilities at the blink of our eyes. We can send texts, meet new friends, banking, invest, learn something, play games, watch a video, listen to music, shop, watch a movie, take a course, etc, and many others. So we can communicate with a person living miles away in a quick time. In short, it is a limitless place to locate information and entertainment. Also, success today in the business world requires a good knowledge of the Internet.
Now the question arises Who Governs the Web Internet ??
Well, the Internet is not governed by any one person or any particular organization. There is no governing body of the internet. Though different volunteer groups have been formed that help to coordinate and guide the technical aspects of the Internet. These groups are as follows :
Internet Activities Board (IAB) – This group looks after the development of the Internet suite or protocols. It performs the following two tasks forces :
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) –
This body is responsible for developing and maintaining communication protocols, resolving problems, and coordinating new services.
Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) – This body looks into long term research issues related to the Internet.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) – This body is an internationally organized, non-profit corporation that is responsible for providing various registration services such as Internet Protocol, country code (ccTLD) Top-Level Domain name system management, root, etc.
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) –
So it is a joint initiative between MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), CERN – (The European Organisation for Nuclear Research), and INRIA – (The National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control) to develop standards for the evolution of the Web.
How does Web Internet Works?
Computers connected to the Internet work together to transfer data and information around the world using servers and clients. The Internet is not bound by any government. It is a huge independent cooperative. No single person, institution, government agency, or company owns the Internet. Several organizations contribute towards its success. The system is responsible for the management of the resources i.e programs and data, on a network by providing a storage area called server.
The computer or system which has an access to the contents of the storage area on the server is called a client. On the Internet, a client which has or which can access files and services on a number of computers is a host computer. In other words, our computer is a host computer. On the Internet, there are certain main communication lines that carry the maximum load of the traffic. These communication lines are collectively referred to as the Internet Backbone.
Web Internet Details
The web is a packet-orientated network i.e when the data is passed from one computer system to another, it is broken up into pieces called packets using TCP. Each Paket contains 1500 bytes or characters. IP adds the IP address of the sender and the destination to each packet so that it reaches the correct destination. The packets are passed from one network to another until they reach their destination.
This is at the destination, TCP reassembles the packets into a complete message. So if packets are garbled, a request is sent to the sender to resend them. So it is not necessary for all the packets in a single message to take the same route through the web or for the same message to take the same route each time it is sent.
The networks are linked by special computers called routers. A router checks where your packet i.e your data goes and decides in which direction to send it. It is not possible that every router is linked with every other router.
So if the routers know where the data is going, there must be some kind of an address which is known as IP i.e Internet Protocol. The data transferred with IP is divided into packets. This is handled by another protocol i.e the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).